Battle of the Butts

Selected Bibliography

Two sources per animal. Click here for Full alphabetical list.


Lourie, Peter. “Research.” The Manatee Scientists: Saving Vulnerable Species. HMH Books for Young Readers, 2016, pp. 32-33.

Rommel, Sentiel, and John E. Reynolds. “Diaphragm Structure and Function in the Florida Manatee (Trichechus Manatus Latirostris).” The Anatomical Record 259, no. 1 (May 1, 2000): 41–51.<41::AID-AR5 >3.0.CO;2-Q.



Sample, Ian. “Scientists Unravel Secret of Cube-Shaped Wombat Faeces.” The Guardian, November 18, 2018, sec. Science.

“Wombats Have Buns of Steel – and They Might Literally Be Deadly.” Washington Post. Accessed October 29, 2018.


Fitzroy River Turtle

“Australia’s Bum-Breathing Turtle Gets a Helping Hand.” Ontario Turtle Conservation Centre (blog). Accessed October 29, 2018.

“New Dams May Flush Bottom-Breathers Out.” Australasian Science, June 2007. Accessed October 29, 2018.



“Fish Flatulence — How Certain Fish Communicate in School.” BioZine, December 15, 2017.

MacLeod, Donald. “Farting Fish Fingered.” The Guardian, March 11, 2005, sec. Education.


Bombardier Beetle

Eisner, T., and D. J. Aneshansley. “Spray Aiming in the Bombardier Beetle: Photographic Evidence.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96, no. 17 (August 17, 1999): 9705–9.

“How This Beetle Creates 500 Explosions Per Second In Its Bum.” Science & Innovation, April 30, 2015. 

Silver-spotted Skipper Caterpillar

Beckman M. As the Frass Flies. Science Now. March 2003:1. Accessed October 1, 2018.

Caveney, Stanley, Heather Mclean, and David Surry. “FAECAL FIRING IN A SKIPPER CATERPILLAR IS PRESSURE-DRIVEN,” n.d., 13.


Beaded Lacewing

Berenbaum, May. “Berothids.” Ninety-Nine More Maggots, Mites, and Munchers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993, pp. 123-124.

Pearson, Gwen. “Silent and Deadly: Fatal Farts Immobilize Prey.” Wired, June 24, 2015.



Gallagher, Ashley. “Tough Teeth and Parrotfish Poop.” Accessed October 30, 2018. –

“Parrotfish – an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics.” Accessed October 30, 2018. 

Sonoran Coralsnake

Szalay, Jessie, Live Science Contributor | December 16, and 2014 12:46am ET. “Coral Snakes: Colors, Bites, Farts & Facts.” Live Science. Accessed October 30, 2018.

“Western Coral Snake.” Wildlife Notes , n.d.


Sea Cucumber

“Giant Sea Cucumber Eats With Its Anus – National Geographic Blog.” Accessed October 30, 2018.

Okada, Akari, and Mariko Kondo. “Regeneration of the Digestive Tract of an Anterior-Eviscerating Sea Cucumber, Eupentacta Quinquesemita, and the Involvement of Mesenchymal–Epithelial Transition in Digestive Tube Formation.” Zoological Letters 5, no. 1 (June 21, 2019): 21.

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